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Keskiaikaisen kymrin kieli

Sara, Małgorzata and MonicaThis page has been set up for the Middle Welsh reading group run at the University of Helsinki by Bethany Fox (of the Research Unit for Variation, Contact and Change in English). The group presently meets every other week--contact Alaric for details (

Links to group materials

Roland Schäfer's A Grammatical Sketch of Middle Welsh. An epitome of the Grammar of Middle Welsh mentioned below. This will serve most of your day-to-day grammatical needs, except that it's unfortunately a bit short on information about the infamous Mutations (a rather serious omission).

Fortunately, Alaric's old Middle Welsh teacher Oliver Padel has allowed Alaric to put up jpegs of his brilliant handout about Middle Welsh mutations. Alaric received the handout from Oliver in 1997 while studying the course 'Middle Welsh language and literature' in the Department of Anglo-Saxon, Norse and Celtic, Cambridge University. We've also put the Grammar of Middle Welsh's verb paradigms up.

These days we're reading Culhwch ac Olwen. Previously, we read (and otherwise performed) the Fourth Branch of the Four Branches of the Mabinogi, Math uab Mathonwy. (For much of which Beth made a running glossary and an alphabetical glossary).

Ilkka and EdithReccommended books

None of the books are required for working with the reading group.

D. Simon Evans, A Grammar of Middle Welsh (Dublin: Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 1964). ISBN 1 85500 000 8. €20. The most authoritative grammar out there, though not exactly bedtime reading (unless you really really want to get to sleep).

H. Meurig Evans and W. O. Thomas, Y Geiriadur Mawr: The Complete Welsh-English English-Welsh Dictionary, 15th edn (no place: Davies, 1989). ISBN 0 7154 0543 8 / 0 85088 462 4. £12.25. Best affordable Modern Welsh-English dictionary.

R. L. Thomson (ed.), Pywll Pendeuic Dyuet: The First of the Four Branches of the Mabinogi, Edited from the White Book of Rhydderch with Variants from the Red Book of Hergest, Mediaeval and Modern Welsh Series, 1 ([Dublin]: The Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 1957). ISBN 1 85500 051 2. €15. The best edition of the First Branch of the Mabinogi with glossary into English.

Derick S. Thomson (ed.), Branwen Uerch Lyr: The Second of the Four Branches of the Mabinogi, Edited from the White Book of Rhydderch, with Variants from the Red Book of Hergest and from Peniarth 6, Mediaeval and Modern Welsh Series, 2 ([Dublin]: The Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 1961). ISBN 1 85500 059 8. €15. The best edition of the Second Branch with glossary into English.

The standard edition of all four of the Four Branches is lamentably (and deplorably) out of print. For what it's worth, it's Ifor Williams (ed.), Pedeir Keinc y Mabinogi allan o Lyfr Gwyn Rhydderch, rev. edn (Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1951). ISBN 0 7083 0517 2. I think it was last reprinted in 1992. The notes and introduction are in Modern Welsh. But the text is available at

Bethany, Ralf, Sara and MałgorzataOther links

Reading Middle Welsh: A Course Book Based on the Welsh of the Mabinogi by Gareth Morgan.

The Finnish-Welsh Society

SFKS pubiseminaari advert: K/kymry.

Will Parker's translations of the Four Branches.

Alaric's only article (so far) on Welsh! 'Gwyr y Gogledd? Some Icelandic Analogues to Branwen Ferch Lyr'.